Frank Liang wrote his Stanford Ph.D. thesis on a hyphenation algorithm that is standard in TeX, and has been adapted to numerous languages.
In 2004, Frank gave permission for unlimited distribution (though not modification of) the thesis. Petr Sojka and his colleagues scanned it. Thanks to them and others involved in the project.
Here it is in two pdf versions. Both have searchable text.
The program that produces the patterns is called patgen, and is included in Web2C and all TeX distributions. Some references: